Some of America’s most dramatic landscapes can be found at Yellowstone National Park. Home to North American’s largest super volcano, Yellowstone’s geysers prove that lava is still bubbling beneath the park’s nearly 3,500 square miles. Undaunted, more than four million people visit the park each year to see the vast range of mountains, lakes, rivers, fauna, flora, and of course, Old Faithful.
Yellowstone National Park 2021 monthly wall calendar features: Large blocks for notes | Beautiful reproduction | Quality heavy-weight paper | Deluxe 11- by 14-inch size
Locations pictured in the 2021 edition include:
• The Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River are found about one-quarter mile beyond the Upper Falls. Lower Falls measures 308 feet tall and is the largest waterfall by volume in the U.S. Rocky Mountains.
• White Dome Geyser erupts from one of the most beautiful and largest cones in Yellowstone. Eruptions occur erratically, but most often at half-hour intervals. They last about two minutes and reach about 30 feet into the air.
• Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is the first large canyon downstream from the Yellowstone Falls. The canyon is 24 miles long, from 800 and 1,200 feet deep and between 1300 and 4000 feet wide and is seen here from the platform at the top of the Lower Falls.
• Opal Terrace, is part of the Mammoth Hot Springs complex. Hot water from the springs which is deposited as it cools and forms a material called travertine of which the terraces are composed.
• Yellowstone’s official flower, Rocky Mountain fringed gentian, blooms in a meadow near Lower Geyser Basin
• Soda Butte Creek flows beneath peaks that soar 10,000 feet above it. On the horizon at left is Barronette Peak (at 10,354 feet the peak was named to honor Jack Baronette who built the first bridge across the Yellowstone River, but the survey misspelled his name) and on the right is Abiather Peak at 10,928 feet tall.
• Rocky Mountain pond lilies are coming into flower in a small pond surrounded by grasses while fireweed blooms among the burned trees in the background. Epilobium angustifolium colonizes quickly in sections of forest disturbed by fire, hence its common name. Fireweed is part of the primrose family.
• Part of the Mammoth Hot Springs Terraces, Minerva Spring creates constantly changing, delicately-sculpted travertine formations, however, the flow of water from the spring has been inconsistent. It was dry in the 1900s, but began to flow again in the 1950s.
• Morning Glory Pool is a hot spring that erupts only rarely, but it notable for its remarkable colors of its rim. The colors are actually thermophilic bacteria that live in the pool’s different water temperatures.
• Deposits of calcite add color to Calcite Springs, the pale slope near river level along this bend in the Yellowstone. Rising steam pushes calcite to the surface turning it whitish yellow.
• Grotto Geyser is part of a group of geysers in the Upper Geyser Basin. A member of the 1870 expedition who discovered and named the geyser climbed into one of its openings and when the geyser erupted realized that he had barely escaped being cooked in the boiling water.
• Water and steam erupt from the Grand Geyser in Upper Geyser Basin. This fountain geyser is the largest of its kind in Yellowstone. Eruptions reach a height of 200 feet and last from nine to 12 minutes every 7 to 15 hours.
About Yellowstone National Park
The first national park in America, Yellowstone, was established when President Ulysses S. Grant signed the Congressional Act into law on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone is also considered the model for all national parks that followed around the globe.
Yellowstone covers 3,498 square miles, mostly in Wyoming, and may be best known for its geothermal features, especially geysers like Old Faithful. The Yellowstone we know now was shaped by volcanic activity that continues to be the source of the park’s remarkable geysers. Yellowstone Lake, one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America, fills the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest super volcano on the continent. Lava flows and rocks from ancient eruptions shaped much of the park’s landscape.
Paleo-Indian activity In Yellowstone has been dated to 11,000 years ago when the Clovis culture adapted Yellowstone obsidian to make cutting tools and weapons like arrowheads that were widely traded with other tribes. The earliest known visit by a European American was recorded by John Colter who was part of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1806 Colter left the expedition and during the winter of 1807-1808 he passed through an area that is now part of Yellowstone. He described a place of fire and brimstone but his report was dismissed as fantasy. Colter’s stories were finally confirmed when several expeditions finally explored the area in more detail in 1869 and 1870.
Early explorers, notably Ferdinand Hayden who led the Hayden Geological Survey of !871, believed in setting aside the area for the benefit and enjoyment of the people. In his report to the Committee on Public Lands, Hayden concluded that if the bill setting aside the Yellowstone land failed to become law, "the vandals who are now waiting to enter into this wonder-land, will in a single season despoil, beyond recovery, these remarkable curiosities, which have required all the cunning skill of nature thousands of years to prepare."
Today Yellowstone is one of America’s most popular national parks. More than three million visitors arrive at the park each year and find the choices of things to see and do are expansive. There are more than 2,000 campsites and 1,100 miles of hiking trails. Fly fishing is popular and there is a marina at Yellowstone Lake. In additional to colorful hot springs and dramatic geysers, 1,700 species of plants and trees grow in the park. More than 300 bird species nest in the park, and Yellowstone is also home to some 60 species of mammals, ranging from bison and bear to mountain goats, elk, bighorn sheep and pronghorn.
Naturalist John Muir offered one of the most compelling descriptions of the Yellowstone in 1898 when we wrote,"However orderly your excursions or aimless, again and again amid the calmest, stillest scenery you will be brought to a standstill hushed and awe-stricken before phenomena wholly new to you. Boiling springs and huge deep pools of purest green and azure water, thousands of them, are plashing and heaving in these high, cool mountains as if a fierce furnace fire were burning beneath each one of them; and a hundred geysers, white torrents of boiling water and steam, like inverted waterfalls, are ever and anon rushing up out of the hot, black underworld.”
© 2020 Tide-mark Press